What is carbon sequestration?
Where does carbon dioxide come from?
Is CO2 bad for the environment?
How can we reduce CO2?
What are some approaches for capturing CO2?
What are the technologies being studied to capture carbon at the point of emission?
What are some ways of removing carbon before combustion?
What are some pathways to oxygen-fired combustion?
What are some tools that can be used to capture CO2 after combustion?
Where can CO2 be stored?
What are some ways of measuring, monitoring and verifying (MM&V) the safety of underground storage formations?

   
What is carbon sequestration?
"Carbon sequestration" is a family of methods for capturing and permanently isolating gases that otherwise could contribute to global climate change. Capture can occur at the point of emission (direct sequestration) or after it has been absorbed into the air (indirect sequestration)

Where does carbon dioxide come from?
Carbon dioxide comes from a mixture of natural and man-made (anthropogenic) sources. The primary source of man-made CO2 emissions comes from the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) for energy production in the transportation, industrial, commercial, and residential sectors.

  
Is CO2 bad for the environment?
CO2 is necessary for life on this planet. It is essential to the photosynthesis process that sustains plant and animal life. However, it can accumulate in the air and trap heat near the Earth's surface, and could lead to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere.

  
How can we reduce CO2?
The three carbon management options are to reduce carbon intensity, improve efficiency, and sequester carbon.

  
What are some approaches for capturing CO2?
The four capture approaches are pre-combustion de-carbonization, post-combustion, oxygen-fired combustion, and chemical looping.

  
What are the technologies being studied to capture carbon at the point of emission?
Researchers are looking at amine absorbents, carbon adsorbents, membranes, sodium, metal-based sorbents, electrochemical pumps, hydrates, and mineral carbonation.

  
What are some ways of removing carbon before combustion?
Advanced amine absorption and improved CO2/H2 membranes. Another approach is to develop advanced physical or chemical absorption technology.

  
What are some pathways to oxygen-fired combustion?
CO2-selective membranes, advanced cooling cycles, compact boilers, and turbines that can operate at high temperature and pressure.

  
What are some tools that can be used to capture CO2 after combustion?
Advanced amine absorption, physical sorbents, CO2-selective membranes, sorbent/membranes, and advanced gas/liquid contactors.

  
Where can CO2 be stored?
CO2 can be stored in underground saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, shale formations with high organic content, and unmineable coal seams. It can be absorbed in trees, grasses, soils, and algae through natural processes. It can be dissolved in deep oceans and it can be converted into solid materials.

  
What are some ways of measuring, monitoring, and verifying (MM&V) the safety of underground storage formations?
Work in below-ground MM&V systems draws upon an existing capability developed for fossil fuel resource exploration and production. Options include surface-to-borehole seismic, micro-seismic and cross-well electromagnetic imaging devices. Above-ground MM&V systems are less mature and focus on detecting potential leaks from geological formations.