CCS is considered as a high-potential technology to accelerate the reduction of CO2 emissions from both fossil-fuelled power plants and other industrial emitters. France invests in the development and deployment of CCS within a holistic approach ranging from technical and financial issues to regulation and public consultation. Further information on different aspects of France’s CCS commitment can be found below:
- CCS in France
- France’s RD&D Program in CCS
- CCS Project Activities
France is committed to act against climate change with an objective of reducing its GHG emissions by a factor of 4 by 2050 with developments dedicated to energy efficiency and the deployment of low-carbon energy solutions. CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered as a high potential technology to accelerate the reduction of CO2 emissions from both fossil-fuel power plants and other industrial emitters.
France has been investing in CCS since the early 2000’s. This effort covers the entire capture-to-storage chain, from academic research to industrial implementation. Public, academic and private players work together on the development and the deployment of the technologies within a holistic approach ranging from technical and financial issues to regulation and public consultation. The use of CO2 as an alternative solution to storage is also considered.
International cooperation and knowledge sharing play an important role within this approach. At national level, French players gather within the “Club CO2” (http://captage-stockage-valorisation-co2.fr/en/home), an umbrella organization for information, dialogue and good practices on CCS research and technological developments, which contributes to the effective management of the national effort.
France has a strong track record on RD&D in the field of CCS (see below). The implementation of a regulatory framework based upon the EU directive 2009/31/CE contributed to the developments and paves the way for further actions.
The two main sources of public funds to foster RD&D projects on CCS are managed by ANR (the French National Research Agency) and ADEME (the French Environment and Energy Management Agency).
Since its creation in 2005, ANR supported:
- 33 CCS projects funded in the CO2 Programme (annual calls for projects from 2005 to 2008) – ANR funding 27.5 M€ (programme CO2 capture and storage. Among these 33 projects:
- 13 were dedicated to capture and among these, 8 have integrated transport;
- 17 were dedicated to storage whilst 12 integrated the monitoring;
- 1 was dedicated to transport;
- 1 was dedicated to risk management and safety criteria; and
- 1 concerned a socio-economic study and public awareness.
- 4 CO2 capture projects funded in the EESI Programme (calls for projects in 2009 and 2010) – ANR funding 4.4 M€ (Energy Efficiency and CO2 emissions reduction in Industrial Systems)
- 4 CCS projects funded in the current SEED programme (2011 call for projects) – ANR funding 2.8 M€(Efficient and Decarbonized Energy Systems). CCUS, including reuse of CO2, is one of the three sub-programmes. Among the 4 projects selected:
- 1 is dedicated to capture;
- 3 are dedicated to storage.
In addition to the research projects, ANR is also in charge of the funding of national excellence research institutes for low-carbon energy technologies. In March 2012, the selection of an institute working on geological storage of CO2, geothermal energy and energy storage was announced, with a funding of €15.9 million.
The ADEME supports initiatives CCS and devotes special attention to energy efficiency, socioeconomic issues, and environmental impacts. Between 2001 and 2009, ADEME invested €3.7 million to support R&D projects. Among these 26 projects, 11 are dedicated to capture, one to transport, six to storage, six to techno-economic studies and two to risk management.
In addition, ADEME supports the deployment of CCS through the funding of demonstration and pilot projects. In 2010, more than €38 million were allocated to three projects: post-combustion capture for coal-fired power plants (pilot-scale, EDF/ALSTOM), CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers (TOTAL/GDFSuez), CCS for steelmaking (integrated industrial-scale project, ARCELOR MITTAL).
Additional funds have been made available within a national investment program. Project proposals are currently being assessed.
TOTAL Lacq Pilot Project – Pyrénées-Atlantique, France. This 30 MWth gas boiler project uses oxy-combustion capture technology. CO2 is transported via an existing 30 km pipeline and stored in a very deep (4,500 meters) depleted gas field. This project will capture and store up to 90,000 tonnes of CO2 over the test period. Operational since January 2010. http://www.total.com/en/special-reports/capture-and-geological-storage-of-co2/capture-and-geological-storage-of-co2-the-lacq-demonstration-200969.html
EDF/ALSTOM post-combustion capture pilot project – Haute-Normandie, France. The project will test an ALSTOM post-combustion capture technology fitted on a coal-fired power plant operated by EDF (commissioning is scheduled for T3/T4 2012). Public funding from ADEME accounts for one quarter of the total project budget of €22 million.
ARCELORMITTAL integrated large-scale CCS demonstration project for steelmaking – Lorraine, France. The project will capture CO2 from a blast furnace at industrial scale for further storage in deep saline aquifers. The project is currently under progress, it is of particular interest for steelmaking and other industrial sectors where only limited or no alternative options for massive reduction of CO2 emissions exist today.