Experimental researches of CO2 capture and storage. Russian Federation is interested in progress of CO2 capture and storage investigations. The main trends of Russian programme in CO2 reduction are:
- Energy saving (up to 40 % of energy consumption)
- Increasing of power plants efficiency
- Long term programme of CO2 capture and storage (integrated gasification combined cycle, post combustion CO2 capture, chemical looping combustion, oxy-fuel combustion, underground CO2 storage in deep oil fields)
Researches on CCS have begun in All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI) a few years ago. They are financed by Ministry of Education and Science. In view of some uncertainly in the forecasts about global warming and its consequences, it was decided not to aim at fastest implementation of the today available systems, but to elaborate advanced, economically attractive ideas: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with precombustion CO2 capture and chemical looping combustion (CLC).
The development of IGCC and experimental researches of processes and equipments for them are caring out in VTI more then 25 years. Last time were consider the opportunities of integration in IGCC the systems, needed for water shift reaction of CO to CO2 and H2, the release of CO2 from synthetic gas before of its combustion in GT.
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technique for the separation CO2 with small losses in energy. The laboratory CLC test rig (10–20 kW) was completed for natural gas and syngas firing. The oxyfuel (coal and biomass based) installation is in constructing now.
Other task of the investigation is to determine optimal storage methods for Russian conditions. An inventory of the candidate sources for CO2 removal in Russian Thermal Power Plants (TPP) was determined. Regional storage opportunities were investigated also in cooperation with JSK “PODZEMGASPROM” and Gubkin State University of oil and gas. Inventory of the geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, active oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers (sub-terranean or sub-seabed) that can be used as CO2 storage sites and their geological and hydrogeological characterization was studied. CO2 injection in deep oil or difficult to extraction oil fields is very attractive method for Russian conditions.
CO2 storage in large reservoirs of aquifers with high permeability. The carbon dioxide placement in aquifers located in Western Siberia, the Ural-Volga region, as well as in the North Sea was considered at the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas http://portalrp.ru/atmosphere-and-hydrosphere-monitoring-2007-2010-projects/tech-02-515-11-5086. The possibility of injection of the combustion gas into geological formations without cleaning and simultaneous extraction of water from the aquifer is suggested. This approach might significantly reduce the cost of CO2 removing from the flue gas using known techniques on the surface and provide separation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the gas mixture passing through the oil or coal seams. Applying of this technology could also allow replacing the dry hydrocarbon gas by CO2, for example, in gas technologies, oil production in the fields of reef south of Bashkortostan in Russia.
Feasibility Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture & Storage in Coal Seams of Kuzbass, Russia. The project was sponsored by UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office Prosperity Fund and undertaken by Institute of Coal of SB RAS. http://gasoilpress.com/online/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=48142. The project suggests Ð¡Ðž2 isolation from a flue gas stream, its compression, transportation via a gas pipeline, injection into a coal seam for a long-term storage and also its use to degas methane recovery stimulation means, taking as an example a coal mine in Prokopyevsk area of Kemerovskaya oblast. The combustion gas emitted by the mine’s coal fired boiler station is the main source of Ð¡Ðž2 emissions which generates superheated steam used for technological needs of the mine and is fed with coal of long flame, gassy grade, mined by the mine itself. Ð¡Ðž2 injection into a coal seam would stimulate methane desorption affordable for further electrical power generation. It was estimated that a time length of the coal seam section serving as a Ð¡Ðž2 storage reservoir will make 15 years with regard of the given coal grades sorption characteristics. It fits for carbon dioxide storage in the amount of 6,408,000 m3.