2019 TECHNICAL GROUP ANNUAL MEETING
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) Participation: CSLF Policy Group; CSLF Technical Group
Key Point of Contact: Kang, GyoungTaek, Policy Group Delegate, Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy, Korea
Korea developed a comprehensive and dedicated carbon capture and storage (CCS) roadmap in July 2010 and is currently revising it to cover the Korean nationally determined contribution’s greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target to limit GHG emissions in 2030 to 37% (conditional) below a business as usual (BAU) scenario. The revised Korea CCS master action plan will be finalized in 2018 and will cover CCS research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities in the period 2018–2030.
This national roadmap contributes to carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) RD&D efforts in reducing GHG emissions through the development of key technologies that lead to sustainable reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. RD&D activities advancing these technologies are pursued through different private companies and government-supported research and development centers and universities, with the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (MOTIE), Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF), and Ministry of the Environment (ME) having a strong leadership role.
Korea launched a new emissions trading scheme on January 12, 2015. The scheme covers 602 businesses, which creates the world’s second-largest carbon market behind the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme. The price of allowances in Korea increased by 2.6 times from about $7.8/tonne CO2 equivalent in 2015 to about $20/tonne CO2 equivalent as of November 2017, with a very limited volume of actual trades (exchange rate ₩1,100/US$).
Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum
Member since September 2005
Clean Energy Ministerial
Member since May 2010
Member since November 2015
International Energy Agency
Member since 2002
Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC) is operating a pilot-scale biological carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion system near the liquefied natural gas (LNG) combustion stack of KDHC in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The system demonstrates for the first time an economical process in reducing CO2 from an urban-area-focused flue gas using microalgae, which convert CO2 into high-valued products such as Astaxanthin, Omega-3 vegetative oil, and Chlorella growth factor. The microalgae-based active ingredient production system is a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and eco-friendly strategy because a specially configured photobioreactor (patented), natural sunlight, and waste heat were used in the system without consuming any electric power, including CO2 from a relatively clean LNG-fired flue gas compared to coal-fired flue gas. The biological CO2 conversion model will definitely contribute to reducing the cost of CO2 sequestration, particularly on a small plot of land in urban-area-focused CO2 emission plants.
The 10-megawatt (MW) pilot plant was commissioned in May 2013. Continuous operation for 1,000 hours with proprietary solvent KoSol-4 was successfully completed, and regeneration energy was less than 2.8 gigjoules (GJ)/tonne carbon dioxide (tCO2) in 2014. Advanced amine solvents have continued to be developed, and the process has been optimized. Long-term continuous operation for 5,000 hours with integrating mode of capture, compression, and liquefaction was accomplished in 2017. The regeneration energy was below 2.5 GJ/tCO2 with proprietary solvent KoSol-5. The scale-up data for more than 150 megawatts electric was acquired, and the commercial package linked capture, compression, and liquefaction was completed.
Photo courtesy of Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute.
This 10 tonnes carbon dioxide (CO2) per day CO2 capture and usage system has been operated by Sungshin Cement in Danyang, the middle region of Korea. The project duration is about 3 years from December 2015 to September 2018, with a budget of about US$5.8 million. KIERSOL, developed by the Korea Institute of Energy Research, is used to capture CO2. This technology, with a reboiler heat duty of 2.2 gigajoules (GJ) per tonne of CO2 and a capture cost of $23 per tonne of CO2, was awarded the “Global Innovation Award” from Tech Conncect 2016, which was held in Washington DC, United States. This technology was also named the “Top 100 technology for leading Korea in 2025” by the National Academy Engineering of Korea in 2017. This project will provide an opportunity to bridge for commercialization carbon capture, use, and storage before preparation of the CO2 storage site and technologies are complete, which finally contributes to greenhouse gas reduction in Korea.
The offshore carbon dioxide (CO2) storage project for small-scale demonstration was launched in August 2013. The storage site is located in the Youngil Bay in the southeastern margin of the Korean peninsula. The storage formation is the sandstone and conglomerate in the basal succession of the Miocene to Pliocene strata of the Pohang Basin. Going through the intensive processes of exploration, site selection, characterization, and storage design by 2015, the construction of the offshore plant (platform and injection facilities) for CO2 storage was completed by the end of 2016, and the initial test injection of 100 tonnes of CO2 was successfully carried out in early 2017. The continuous injection of more than 10 kilotonnes of CO2 per year will be resumed in early 2018 simultaneously with installation of the offshore pipeline and coastal hub terminal for CO2 transportation.
Photo courtesy of Kongju National University.
The pilot-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) reforming system has been operated by the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology in Daejeon, Korea. The system demonstrates CO2 conversion to syngas via catalytic reforming of CO2 and natural gas; the CO2 conversion efficiency reaches 95%, and 20 tonnes of CO2 can be utilized per year using the system. A demonstration-scale plant using current CO2-reforming technology will be developed in following years. Ongoing research aims to establish an integrated process for CO2 reforming, sequential CO conversion, and separation technology to manufacture CO2-based chemicals. This project will provide an opportunity to substitute petroleum-based chemicals with CO2-based chemicals, which ultimately contributes to greenhouse gas reduction.
Photo courtesy of Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology.
This is a pilot-scale project, located in southern Korea, that is demonstrating the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a 10 megawatt electric power plant flue gas slipstream, using a potassium carbonate-based solid sorbent. The project’s overall goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of dry solid sorbent capture while improving the economics (target: below US$40 per tonne of CO2 captured). The project will extend through most of 2017. There will be 180 days of continuous operation each year, with a capture rate of about 170 tonnes of CO2 per day at more than 95% CO2 purity.
Recognized by the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) at the 2015 CSLF Meeting in Abu Dhabi.
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Photo courtesy of Korea Southern Power Co., Ltd.
In July 2010, the presidential committee on green growth with five ministries (Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning [MSIT]; Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy [MOTIE]; Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [MOF]; Ministry of Environment [ME]; and Ministry of Strategy and Finance [MOSF]) announced the national carbon capture and storage (CCS) master action plan based on the Framework Act on Low-Carbon Green Growth (April 2010).1 The key categories of actions include (1) innovative CCS technology development, (2) large-scale integrated CCS demonstrations, and (3) development of environmental management and regulatory frameworks. MOTIE supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of CCS, mainly focusing on capture and storage technologies, with recently increasing support towards utilization. MSIT mainly supports the research programs of innovative CCS technologies. ME and MOF support the environmental management regulatory framework for CCS. MOF supports the offshore storage sites (saline aquifers).
The Korean government spent about US$89 million (106.9 billion Korean won) during the first decade of 2000 and spent about US$268.2 million (295.0 billion Korean won) in 2011–2015 for CCS research and development (R&D) support. The total budget spent over the last 5 years was US$333.8 million, including private support. This spending appears to be very low (16%) relative to the originally planned budget of US$2.09 billion during the period 2011–2020, mostly due to delays in large-scale CCS demonstration(s).
To promote CCS deployment in Korea, the national CCS master action plan also includes establishing national networks for technology development, demonstration, and law and regulatory frameworks: the Korea CCS Association (KCCSA, www.kccsa.or.kr) for demonstration and deployment under MOTIE (November 2010), the Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC, www.kcrc.re.kr) for technology innovation under MSIT, and the and Korea CO2 Storage Environmental Management Research Center (K-COSEM, http://k-cosem.korea.ac.kr) for environmental management of geologic carbon storage under ME. In pursuit of implementing R&D for offshore storage and preparing its large-scale demo project in Korea, KRISO has established the Offshore CCS Research Center (www.kriso.re.kr) with support under MOF.
Korea CCS Association (KCCSA) was established (supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy) as an association of members representing the power and industrial sectors, including oil, iron and steel, heavy industries, and engineering and construction. Also, more than 30 research institutes and universities joined KCCSA as special members. Current activities include work on the regulatory/policy system, knowledge sharing, international CCS collaboration, and improving public acceptance.
Korea CCS R&D Center (KCRC) was established (supported by the Ministry of Science and ICT) to perform CCS policy planning, international cooperation, and education and training, as well as to develop innovative CCS technology. Approximately 500 researchers and scientists are affiliated with KCRC to secure core and innovative CCS technology to enable technology transfer to industry.
1 See the Framework Act on Low-Carbon Green Growth: http://www.law.go.kr/eng/engLsSc.do?menuId=1&query=framework+act+on+low-carbon+green+growth&x=28&y=30#liBgcolor3 and Enforcement Decree of the Framework act on Low-Carbon Green Growth: http://www.law.go.kr/eng/engLsSc.do?menuId=1&query=framework+act+on+low-carbon+green+growth&x=30&y=31#liBgcolor0.
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