CCUS Activities in the United States

The United States Department of Energy’s (U.S. DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) supports a diverse portfolio of advanced research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities to promote secure, affordable, and environmentally acceptable near-zero emissions fossil energy technologies. Fossil Energy’s Clean Coal Research Program (CCRP) is focused on the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, advanced power generation technologies, and cross-cutting efforts such as computational modeling and simulation and plant optimization. Commercial availability of CCS technologies will provide an option to use abundant, secure, fossil fuel resources for power generation and industrial uses, and allow the U.S. to cost effectively meet global climate policies.

The program explores the significant potential to reduce the cost and energy demand of CO2 capture and compression processes through technological advancements. Carbon capture research and development (R&D) activities are pursuing innovative solutions for post-, pre-, and oxy-combustion carbon capture and improvements in existing technologies. Additionally, this R&D area focuses on advanced CO2 compression technologies in order to reduce the cost of increasing the pressure to the 1,200-2,000 pounds per square inch (psi) required for pipeline transportation and geologic storage.

The RD&D activities being conducted to support geologic storage of CO2 include development of novel storage technologies to improve containment and injectivity; monitoring, verification, accounting and assessment (MVAA) tools to provide assurance of storage permanence; simulation and risk assessment to better predict and manage geologic storage projects; and CO2 use and re-use. The program also promotes infrastructure development through the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and other small- and large-scale field tests to validate storage capacity and permanence. The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is integrating observations and information from these efforts in the development of science-based predictive tools for quantifying long-term liability potentially associated with storage sites.

The CCRP also supports a robust demonstration program, which includes the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). CCPI seeks to accelerate private sector development of new coal-based power and CCS technologies that can meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. These large-scale demonstration projects enable advanced technologies to overcome technical risks involved with scale-up and bring them to the point of commercial readiness. Funding for these projects includes an additional US$3.4 billion from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for CCS activities, including the demonstration of CCS technologies at commercial scale.

The beneficial use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) can play an important role in facilitating early demonstration and commercial deployment of CCS. CO2 EOR has many benefits, including: (1) increasing domestic oil supplies; (2) creating jobs and positively impacting the economy; (3) validating and developing utilization technologies to a state of commercial readiness; and, (4) helping to transition to the post-2020 era of global commercial CCS technology deployment. The CCRP is leading efforts to make possible greater utilization of the Nation’s abundant fossil energy resources in an environmentally sound and economically competitive way.

DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) implements the Office of Fossil Energy’s CCS program through both extramural and intramural research, involving over 400 CO2 capture and/or storage or beneficial use projects being conducted throughout the U.S. with a total award value in excess of $17 billion. These projects range in scope from field testing and validation through commercial demonstration and deployment, and employ a vast array of CCS technologies in the power, commercial, and industrial sectors.

CSLF Project Activities

"[T]he International Energy Agency...[estimates] the contribution of CCUS at roughly 14 percent of the cumulative emissions reductions between now and mid-century if we are to stay on this path ... of holding global temperature rise to 2 degrees centigrade or less. And so that’s a big piece, and that’s why... we need to keep maintaining this as an option."
--Ernest Moniz, former Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy, Remarks to the National Coal Council, April 20, 2016

Advanced Integrated CCUS Projects

Hydrogen Energy California Project (HECA) IGCC – California, United States. California, United States. DOE is providing financial assistance to Hydrogen Energy California LLC (HECA), along with private capital cost sharing, to demonstrate an advanced coal-fired generating plant that co-produces electricity and fertilizer products. The project will employ integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to nominally generate up to 280 MW (net) of electricity and produce approximately one million tons per year of fertilizer using a 75 percent coal and 25 percent petroleum coke fuel blend. The CO2 off-take agreement contemplated by HECA will enable geologic storage of CO2 at a rate of approximately 2.6 million metric tons per year. The captured CO2 will be transported via pipeline to the Elk Hills oil field for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The project is currently in the permit application phase.

Kemper IGCC Project – Mississippi, United States. DOE awarded Southern Company Services a cooperative agreement to provide direct financial support for the development and deployment of the Transport Integrated Gasification (TRIGTM) technology that is being utilized by the Project. The Project will be the first commercial scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant in the U.S. to use TRIGTM air blown technology in the gasification process. The plant will be built in Kemper County, Mississippi, adjacent to viable lignite reserves. The lignite reserves will be developed and mined by North American Coal Corporation and will be used as the primary feedstock for the IGCC plant. The IGCC plant will utilize state-of-the-art emissions controls, including carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, and will be owned and operated by Mississippi Power Company. The Project will utilize two transport gasifier trains, each with its own coal feed and ash handling systems. Coal is first heated in a specialized process vessel with air and steam to extract synthesis gas (syngas) from the coal. The gas is then cleaned and used to fire a gas turbine to generate electricity. The hot exhaust gas leaving the turbine is then used to heat water to produce steam which is then sent to a steam turbine to generate additional electricity. Using the two different power generation cycles is a very efficient way of increasing the amount of electricity that can be generated from a ton of coal in an environmentally friendly manner. The project is currently under construction with an expected start of operations in 2014.

Summit Texas Clean Energy Project – Texas, United States. The TCEP will be a greenfield integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) poly-generation facility with fully integrated CO2 capture. The project will produce electricity for export to the grid and other high-value marketable products, including CO2, urea, and sulfuric acid. The IGCC facility will deploy Siemens commercial gasification and power block technologies. Two SFG-500 (500 MW-thermal) gasifiers will produce syngas that will be quenched, cleaned and shifted to a high-hydrogen concentration. The power block will consist of one SGT6-5000F combustion turbine, one triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and one SST-900RH reheat steam turbine for power generation rated at 400 MW (gross). The facility will use Rectisol® acid gas removal technology to capture about 90 percent of the total CO2 produced from the facility. The captured CO2 will be divided into two streams. About 20 percent of the CO2 will be used to produce urea fertilizer. The balance of the CO2 will be compressed for transport by existing regional pipelines to oilfields in the west Texas Permian Basin for beneficial use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations with concomitant geologic storage. The west Texas Permian Basin is the largest market in the world for CO2-flood EOR. Permits have been received and the project is expected to be operational by 2018.

W.A. Parish Plant (NRG Energy) CO2 Capture and Storage Project – Texas, United States. The project will demonstrate the ability to capture 90 percent of the CO2 emitted from a 240 MW flue gas slipstream. Recent advances in CO2 capture technology will be demonstrated and the captured CO2 will be compressed and transported through an 80 mile pipeline to the West Ranch Oil Field in Jackson County, TX where it will be utilized for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and ultimately sequestered. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process has been completed and the project is expected to be operational by 2017.

Air Products & Chemicals (APCI) Port Arthur Project – Texas, United States. APCI is demonstrating a state-of-the-art system that concentrates CO2 from two steam methane reformer (SMR) hydrogen production plants located in Port Arthur, Texas. Air Products has retrofitted its two Port Arthur SMRs with a vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) system that separates the CO2 from the process gas stream, followed by compression and drying processes. These modifications concentrate the initial stream containing from 10-20 percent CO2 to greater than 98 percent CO2 purity. The compressed CO2 is delivered to the Denbury pipeline for transport to Texas EOR projects in the West Hastings Field where a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) program ensures the injected CO2 remains in the underground geologic formation. The technology removes more than 90 percent of the CO2 from the process gas stream with negligible impact on the efficiency of hydrogen production. The project became operational in 2012 and as of September 2013 has captured and sent over 500,000 short tons of CO2 to the Denbury pipeline for sequestration.

Leucadia Energy, Port Charles Project – Louisiana, United States. This project will demonstrate the capture of CO2 from an industrial facility for use in an independent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The industrial source of CO2 will be a petroleum-coke-to-chemicals (methanol, hydrogen and other by-products) gasification plant being developed by Lake Charles Cogeneration, LLC (a Leucadia Energy, LLC, affiliate) in Lake Charles, Louisiana. Once the CO2 is captured, it will be purified to remove contaminants and compressed to a pressure suitable for commercial pipeline transport to oil fields for EOR. The project will also implement a comprehensive monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program to confirm the long-term sequestration of a minimum of one million tons per year of the injected CO2 at the Hastings oil field in Texas. Operations are scheduled to begin in late 2017.

Archer Daniels Midland Company, CO2 Capture and Storage Project – Illinois, United States.This project will demonstrate an integrated system for collecting CO2 from an ethanol production plant and geologically sequestering it (deep underground storage) in a sandstone reservoir. The CO2 produced is a byproduct from processing corn into fuel-grade ethanol at the ADM ethanol plant. The CO2 will be sequestered in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a prolific saline reservoir in the Illinois Basin with the capacity to store billions of tons of CO2. Super-critical CO2 fluid will be injected into the saline reservoir at a depth of approximately 7,000 feet at a site adjacent to the ADM ethanol plant. Nearly 50 years of successful natural gas storage in the Mt. Simon Sandstone indicates that this saline reservoir and overlying seals should effectively contain sequestered CO2. The project is under construction and is expected to begin storing CO2 in 2014.

FutureGen 2.0 Project – Illinois, United States. The Project scope includes the definition, design, procurement, manufacture, installation, startup, commercial operation and testing of an integrated oxy-fired coal plant with CO2 capture, purification and compression. The plant will generate approximately 167 MW gross output when using a blended fuel comprised of Illinois bituminous and Powder River Basin coals. Approximately 1 million metric tonnes per year of CO2 will be captured and compressed for transport and delivered for storage in the Mt. Simon saline formation. Power Purchase Agreements were signed in 2013 and the project is expected to begin operation in 2017.

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) CCUS Activities

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sponsors seven RCSPs, which together encompass 43 states and 3 provinces of Canada, six of the RCSPs are conducting large-scale CO2 injection tests (up to one million metric tons per year), to validate the potential for safe and permanent geologic storage, and are addressing regional, state and local regulatory, realty and public participation issues. The RCSPs were launched in 2003 and are being completed in three Phases. Phase I: Characterization was initiated in 2003 and focused RCSPs efforts on characterizing the potential for CO2 storage in oil-, gas-, coal-, and saline-bearing geologic formations. Phase II: Validation was initiated in 2005 to conduct small-scale injection tests (less than 500,000 metric tons total). Twenty small-scale tests were conducted that collected data to confirm storage and injectivity estimates; validate models; demonstrate effective MVA methods; and develop initial guidelines for well completion, operations, and closure. The RCSPs are currently in Phase III: Development, where they are working to implement large-scale injection tests (one million metric tons or more total) that will demonstrate the long-term, effective, and safe storage and utilization of CO2 in the major geologic formations throughout the United States and parts of Canada. As of September 2013, five of eight large-scale tests have commenced injection.

Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) Projects – United States. A Development Phase large-scale injection demonstration is currently underway at a corn to ethanol processing facility in Decatur, Illinois. Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services are key industry partners for this project, which will inject 1 million metric tons of CO2 over a period of three years. As of October 2013, 600,000 metric tons of CO2 had been injected. The target formation receiving the CO2 is the Mt. Simon Sandstone saline formation, one of the most significant potential carbon storage resources in the United States. A comprehensive MVA program which includes shallow groundwater, soil gas, resistivity, and atmospheric monitoring is being implemented.

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Projects –Alabama and Mississippi, United States. The primary goal of SECARB is to develop the necessary framework and infrastructure to conduct field tests of carbon storage technologies and to evaluate options and potential opportunities for the future commercialization of carbon storage in the region. SECARB is currently evaluating two opportunities for large-scale CO2 storage Development Phase field projects. The Early Test, currently underway in Cranfield, Mississippi, has injected and stored over 4.3 million tonnes of CO2 at this site since April 2009. This project focuses on EOR efforts, the long-term storage of a large-scale amount of CO2, and the effects that large volume of CO2 has on the storage formation. The information gathered from the Early Test has been applied to the Anthropogenic Test at Alabama Power Company's Plant Barry in Bucks, Alabama. This test comprises a fully integrated CO2 capture, transport, and storage project. The CO2 generated at Plant Barry is being captured on-site, transported by pipeline and stored within a deep saline formation at the Citronelle oil field operated by Denbury Resources, Inc. Denbury will inject CO2 generated by Plant Barry for 3 years. Injection of CO2 began August 2012, and as of September 2013, over 80,000 tonnes have been injected. SECARB is also working to deploy a pre-, during, and post-injection MVA program for this project.

Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership (PCOR) Projects – United States. The PCOR has identified, quantified, and categorized 927 stationary sources in the region that have an annual output of greater than 13,600 metric tons of CO2. PCOR is also planning to conduct two Phase III: Development projects. The first large-scale test, the Bell Creek project, is sending CO2 from the Lost Cabin gas plant in north-central Wyoming through a pipeline. This EOR project will utilize nearly 900,000 metric tons of CO2 per year. Injection of CO2 began in May 2013. This will provide a significant opportunity to develop a set of cost-effective MVA protocols for large-scale anthropogenic CO2 transport and storage associated with an EOR operation. The second test may ultimately be the largest application of deep saline geologic storage in the world. If proven feasible, this project will provide permanent storage of 1 million to 2.2 million metric tons of CO2 per year from the Fort Nelson gas processing facility in northeastern British Columbia.

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Projects –United States. The overarching goal of the BSCSP is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to verify and deploy storage technologies by developing safe, effective, and economical approaches for capturing and permanently storing CO2 to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Led by Montana State University, the BSCSP is preparing for a large-scale Development Phase CO2 injection into a saline aquifer in northwest Montana. BSCSP will produce one million metric tons of CO2 from a natural source called the Kevin Dome. The CO2 will be transported approximately six miles to the injection site where it will be injected into the Duperow formation. A comprehensive MVA program is being developed for the project that will include crosswell seismic, 3-dimensional, nine-component vertical seismic profiles (VSP), tracers, fluid sampling, and monitoring wells.

Southwest Partnership Projects – United States. Objectives of this Development Phase project include: estimate capacity of the Jurassic Saline reservoirs, estimate seal efficiency, and assess new monitoring methods. Led by the New Mexico Institute of Technology, SWP has teamed with Chaparral Energy of Oklahoma City to conduct a large-scale field project in Chaparral’s Farnsworth Unit in the Texas panhandle. The project will begin in late 2013 and will monitor the injection of one million metric tons of CO2 over five years into the Morrow Sandstone of the Farnsworth Unit Field at a depth of about 7,700 ft. The CO2 for this test is sourced from a fertilizer plant (Agrium in Borger, Texas) and ethanol plant (Arkalon Energy in Liberal, Kansas).

Midwest RCSP projects –United States. The primary site for the MRCSP's Development Phase large-scale injection test is in Otsego County, Michigan, approximately 10 miles south of the successful Validation Phase demonstration. Led by Battelle, the project is injecting CO2 into a small number of oil fields within a geologic formation known as the northern Niagaran pinnacle reef trend. The project will monitor one million metric tons of CO2 into this formation over 4 years. Injection will be at a depth of about 6,000 feet. The CO2 for this test is a by-product from natural gas processing and is being captured at a nearby CO2 drying and compression facility. The CO2 is carried by an existing pipeline network to the injection wells. MRCSP will test and monitor before, during and after injection to understand the behavior and capacity of individual reefs. The project began monitoring the injection of CO2 during the latter part of February 2013, and initiated injection into a second reef type in early April 2013.

West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) Arizona Utilities CO2 Storage Pilot – Arizona, United States. WESTCARB's goals are to characterize regional opportunities for geologic and terrestrial carbon storage; validate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of some of the best regional opportunities through field tests; and demonstrate geologic storage at a larger scale. WESTCARB is continuing to conduct regional characterization to identify potential storage opportunities throughout the region.

Carbon Capture Small-Scale Slipstream Tests

The US DOE National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility - Alabama, United States. The NCCC offers a flexible test facility which provides commercially representative flue gas and syngas, and the necessary infrastructure in which developers’ technologies are installed and tested to generate data for performance verification under industrially realistic operating conditions. Testing and developing new CO2 capture technologies at commercially representative conditions is critical before the technologies can be deployed at full scale. The NCCC includes a post-combustion capture center which was built and started testing in March 2011 and a pre-combustion test unit that expands upon previous gasification and combustion testing as part of the Power Systems Development Facility. The post-combustion test facility includes a 0.5 MWe pilot solvent test unit, a bench-scale testing area, and pilot test area for testing technologies up to 1 MWe. The pre-combustion test facility allows testing for multiple technologies at bench or small-pilot scale.

ADA-ES, Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture – Alabama, United States. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) will design and construct a 1 megawatt (MW) pilot plant to demonstrate solid sorbent-based post-combustion CO2 capture technology for coal-fired power plants. The project will utilize progress on sorbent technology as demonstrated in bench-scale viability tests from a separate Department of Energy (DOE) project and will refine and optimize sorbent capture and regeneration processes through pilot testing and process modeling. ADA-ES has evaluated over 100 potential CO2 sorbents to select sorbents for scale-up that are stable, have relatively high CO2 capacity, and have lower heats of reaction than carbonate-based solids. Project results will be used to develop a preliminary full-scale commercial design in preparation for demonstration at the next scale. The host site for the project is Alabama Power’s Plant Miller in West Jefferson, AL. As of July 2013, site construction and equipment fabrication have begun.

Membrane Technology Research, Slipstream Testing of a Membrane CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant – Alabama, United States. This five-year project will advance MTR's membrane technology to the 1 MWe level. Membrane-based flue gas CO2 separation technologies offer a number of advantages, including low energy use, tolerance to wet acid gases, small footprint, recovery of flue gas water, and—as they use only electric power—no modifications to the existing boiler and steam turbine. A 1 MWe membrane skid capable of 90% CO2 capture from a 20 ton CO2 per day slipstream of coal-fired flue gas will be designed, constructed, and installed at the NCCC for a six-month field test. MTR's air sweep process design will be evaluated in collaboration with Babcock & Wilcox to determine the performance impact of retrofitting existing boilers with membrane systems using combustion air sweep. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) will evaluate the benefits of flue gas water recovery, measure the quality of the water produced in the demonstration project, and define water management for the integrated CO2 capture process. As of July 2013, the project is fabricating the 20 ton per day membrane unit, and delivery and installation at the NCCC is scheduled for early 2014.

Linde LLC, Slipstream Pilot Scale Demonstration of a Novel Amine-Based Post-Combustion Process Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas – Alabama, United States. This project will design, build, and operate a 1 MWe equivalent pilot plant to further refine a post-combustion capture solvent technology developed by Linde and BASF, incorporating BASF’s novel amine-based process along with Linde’s process and engineering innovations. This technology offers significant benefits as it aims to reduce the regeneration energy requirements using novel solvents that are stable under the coal-fired power plant feed gas conditions. BASF has developed the desired solvent based on the evaluation of a large number of candidates. Linde has evaluated a number of options for capital cost reduction in large engineered systems for solvent-based post-combustion capture technology. Based on completed detailed engineering studies and design development for the system, the pilot plant will be constructed, installed, and commissioned to operate on a slipstream of coal-fired flue gas. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL, will be the host site for the slipstream pilot plant. Site construction at NCCC began in July 2013.

University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER), Application of a Heat Integrated Post-Combustion CO2 Capture System with Hitachi Advanced Solvent into Existing Coal-Fired Power Plant – Kentucky, United States. This project will develop a 0.7 MWe equivalent slipstream post-combustion CO2 capture system for a coal-fired power plant using novel concepts coupled with Hitachi’s proprietary solvent (H3-1). An innovative heat integration method will utilize waste heat from the carbon capture system while improving steam turbine efficiency. A two-stage stripping concept will be combined with the heat integration method to increase solvent capacity and capture rate in the CO2 scrubber. The advanced solvent utilized by the process has several advantages over conventional amine solvents, including exhibiting lower heat of regeneration, higher capacity, and less solvent degradation. The project will be located at LG&E and KU Services Company’s E.W. Brown Generating Station, located near Harrodsburg, Kentucky.

Southern Company Services, Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CORemoval from Coal-Fired Flue Gas – Alabama, United States. Southern Company Services, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America (MHIA), and URS Group will develop viable heat integration methods for the capture of CO2 produced from pulverized coal combustion using a waste heat recovery technology, High Efficiency System (HES). This technology will be integrated into an existing 25 MW pilot amine-based CO2 capture process (KM-CDR) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry. The KM-CDR demonstration is separately funded by an industry consortium. Modeling by MHIA indicates that a fully heat integrated HES will improve by 26 percent the thermal energy performance of the integrated KM-CDR and plant operation. The 25 MW HES technology will be designed, installed, and operated for 12 months to evaluate the resulting energy performance improvements. Project objectives are to quantify energy efficiency improvements to the CO2 capture process when integrated with the HES and the host power plant, and results from the project will be used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. A second objective of this work is to identify and resolve operational and control problems from the integration of the HES and CO2 capture process. A third objective of the work is to quantify the tangential benefits of the HES technology to solvent-based CO2 technologies, including reduced water consumption and better overall process performance.

Neumann Systems Group, Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE), – Colorado, United States.  Neumann Systems Group, Inc. (NSG), in collaboration with Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU), will conduct project CARE to design, construct, and test the NeuStream-C, a patented absorber for CO2 capture. The focus of the CARE project is to show significant reductions in the process equipment footprint and cost of full-scale CO2 capture systems through the utilization of NeuStream absorber technology. The NeuStream-C absorber will use a proven nozzle technology and an advanced solvent that efficiently captures CO2. These technologies are key to demonstrating that the NeuStream-C absorber is scalable to an optimized full-scale system that can achieve 90 percent CO2 removal with less than 35 percent increase in the cost of electricity (COE). The CARE project benefits from significant technical, process, risk, and cost advantages realized during a recently completed 20 MWe NeuStream-S flue gas desulfurization pilot project at the CSU Drake #7 PC power plant. As of July 2013, the project is currently in the fabrication, procurement, and construction phase. 

CCUS Initiatives

The United States Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage was established to propose a plan to overcome the barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within ten years. Its primary role was to formally address possible incentives for CCS adoption and any financial, economic, technological, legal, institutional, or other barriers to deployment. It also outlined how to best coordinate existing federal authorities and programs, as well as identify areas where additional federal authority may be necessary. The Interagency Task Force delivered a series of recommendations to the President on overcoming the barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within ten years on August 12, 2010.

The USDOE Carbon Capture and Sequestration Simulation Initiative (CCSI) - The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Simulation Initiative (CCSSI) is a partnership among five national laboratories (National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Pacific Northwest), industry, and various academic institutions that are working together to develop state-of-the-art computational modeling and simulation tools to accelerate the commercialization of carbon capture and storage technologies.
This initiative consists of two efforts: The Carbon Capture and Simulation Initiative (CCSI), which focuses on capture of CO2 from large facilities, and the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP), which focuses on storage of CO2 in geologic reservoirs. These efforts are part of DOE/NETL's comprehensive carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) research program, in support of the President's plan to overcome barriers to the widespread, cost-effective deployment of CCS within 10 years.

CCSI is developing a toolset to accelerate the path for new capture technologies to move from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately, widespread deployment at hundreds of power plants. Taking promising new power plant capture technologies from concept to commercial scale normally would take 15-25 years in order to manage the overall risk of the scale-up process. Science-based models developed as part of CCSI will be used in conjunction with pilot-scale data to allow larger steps to be taken earlier with greater confidence, thereby reducing the time and expense required for achieving commercial deployment of carbon capture technology. The CCSI Toolset will incorporate commercial and open-source software currently in use by industry as well as new software tools developed by the Partnership to fill identified technology needs. It will consist of models for particle and device scale simulation, process synthesis and design, and plant operations and control, all of which build on a common set of basic data. The software will be linked by a web-based framework that will allow scientists and engineers at the CCSI sites to incorporate uncertainty quantification, risk analysis, and decision making using the capabilities and specialized software existing on computers at the various National Laboratories.

NRAP is developing a toolset to quantify key storage-security relationships over the range of conditions anticipated for large-scale deployment of CO2 storage. This toolset will help to guide research, site characterization, and monitoring strategies aimed at lowering the uncertainties in storage-site performance. NRAP leverages a core DOE capability in science-based prediction for engineered natural systems. The primary objective of NRAP is to develop a defensible, science-based methodology and platform for quantifying risk profiles at most types of CO2 storage sites to guide decision making and risk management. NRAP is also developing monitoring and mitigation protocols to reduce uncertainty in the predicted long-term behavior of a site. To assist in effective site characterization, selection, operation, and management, NRAP is considering potential risks associated with key operational concerns, as well as those associated with long-term liabilities. Operational issues include the management of reservoir pressure and stress to avoid conditions that might induce seismic activity. Issues associated with long-term liabilities include groundwater protection and storage permanence to avoid CO2 leakage.